Leds Colors
A. Visible Color
LEDs are highly monochromatic, emitting a pure color in a narrow frequency range. The color emitted from an LED is identified by peak wavelength (lpk) and measured in nanometers (nm ).
Peak wavelength is a function of the LED chip material. Although process variations are 10 NM, the 565 to 600 NM wavelength spectral region is where the sensitivity level of the human eye is highest. Therefore, it is easier to perceive color variations in yellow and amber LEDs than other colors.

LEDs are made from gallium-based crystals that contain one or more additional materials such as phosphorous to produce a distinct color. Different LED chip technologies emit light in specific regions of the visible light spectrum and produce different intensity levels.

Wavelength (nm)
Color
Color Example
100-280
UV-C

280-320
UV-B

320-395
UV-A

395-430
Violet

430-450
Indigo

450-480
Blue

480-520
Blue-Green

520-555
Green

555-585
Yellow-Green

585-600
Yellow

600-615
Amber

615-625
Orange

625-640
Orange-Red

640-700
Red

700-770
Shortwave NIR

770-1100
Longwave NIR

>=1100
Infrared

B. White color

Ó 2003 W. E. Johns & The LED Light Inc

>>   Leds Classes/ Leds Color: visible color

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Infrared LEDs
The infrared band can be divided into Near Infrared (NIR) and Far Infrared (IR). Far infrared is the thermal infrared used to detect hot objects or see heat leaks in buildings, and is way beyond the range of LEDs. (NIR can be further divided into two bands, longwave and shortwave NIR, based on how film and CCD cameras react, which I'll get into elsewhere, elsewhen, and elsewhy.)

Infrared LEDs are sometimes called IREDs (Infra Red Emitting Diodes).

Ultraviolet LEDs
Ultraviolet light is divided into three bands: UV-A, which is fairly innocuous; UV-B, which causes sunburns; and UV-C, which kills things. Most UV-B and all UV-C from the sun is filtered out by the ozone layer, so we get very little of it naturally. LEDs emit UV-A.

400 nm is a pretty common wavelength for UV LEDs. This is right on the border between the violet and ultraviolet, so a significant portion of the light emitted is visible. For this reason 400 nm UV LEDs are sometimes rated in millicandela, even though as much as half of their energy is invisible. LEDs with lower wavelengths, such as 380nm, are usually not rated in millicandela, but in milliwatts.





Eye Protection
LEDs are very bright. DO NOT look directly into the LED light!! The light can be intense enough to injure human eyes.
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